• 经济学人:世界应如何看待中国成科技大国?(3)
  • 时间:2019-01-17
  • This gives Chinese scientists an incentive to observe international rules—because that is what will win its researchers access to the best conferences, laboratories and journals, and because unethical science diminishes China’s soft power. Mr He’s gene-editing may well be remembered not just for his ethical breach, but also for the furious condemnation he received from his Chinese colleagues and the threat of punishment from the authorities. The satellite destruction in 2007 caused outrage in China. It has not been repeated.

    这让中国科学家有了遵守国际规则的动力。有两个原因,第一,研究人员因此可以参加顶级会议、加入顶尖图书馆、在核心期刊上发表文章,第二,不道德的科学会削弱中国的软实力。贺建奎的基因编辑会被铭记,不仅仅是因为他违背了道德,还因为他受到同行的强烈谴责和政府的管制。2007年的卫星毁灭事件在中国引起公愤。目前还没有类似的事情发生。

    The tantalising question is how this bears on Mr Democracy. Nothing says the best scientists have to believe in political freedom. And yet critical thinking, scepticism, empiricism and frequent contact with foreign colleagues threaten authoritarians. Soviet Russia sought to resolve that contradiction by giving its scientists privileges, but isolating many of them in closed cities.

    发人深思的问题在于这和“德先生”有关。最优秀的科学家必须信奉政治自由这种说法毫无根据。然而,批判性思维、怀疑主义、经验主义以及与外国同行的频繁接触,对威权主义者构成了威胁。苏联曾试图通过给予科学家特权来解决这种矛盾,但却将很多科学家隔离在封闭的城市。

    China will not be able to corral its rapidly growing scientific elite in that way. Although many researchers will be satisfied with just their academic freedom, only a small number need seek broader self-expression to cause problems for the Communist Party. Think of Andrei Sakharov, who developed the Russian hydrogen bomb, and later became a chief Soviet dissident. When the official version of reality was tired and stilted, both stood out as seekers of the truth. That gave them immense moral authority.

    通过这样的方式,中国无法聚集快速增长的科学精英。尽管许多研究人员只满足于学术自由,但是只要有小部分人追求更广泛的自我表达,就会给政府带来麻烦。想想安德烈•萨哈罗夫吧,他研发了俄罗斯的氢弹,后成为苏联的主要异见人士。当官方对事实的描述烦人呆板时,这样的人就会作为真理的追寻者脱颖而出。这给了他们巨大的道德权威。

    Some in the West may feel threatened by China’s advances in science, and therefore aim to keep its researchers at arm’s length. That would be wise for weapons science and commercial research, where elaborate mechanisms to preserve secrecy already exist and could be strengthened. But to extend an arm’s-length approach to ordinary research would be self-defeating. Collaboration is the best way of ensuring that Chinese science is responsible and transparent.

    西方某些人士可能会感觉收到了中国科学进步的威胁,所以要和中国研究人员保持一定的距离。这在武器科学和商业研究方面是明智之举,因为在这些方面复杂的保密机制已经存在且可以继续加强。但是,将保持距离的方法延伸到普通的研究将会弄巧成拙。合作是确保中国科学负责任和透明的最佳方式。

    Hard as it is to imagine, Mr Xi could end up facing a much tougher choice: to be content with lagging behind, or to give his scientists the freedom they need and risk the consequences. In that sense, he is running the biggest experiment of all.

    虽然很难想象,但习可能最终面临一个更加艰难的选择:要么满足于落后,要么给科学家自由,并冒着承担后果的风险。从这个意义上说,他正在进行最大的实验。

    1.observe something 遵从

    The army was observing a ceasefire.

    军队当时在遵守一项停火协议。

    2.bear on 与(某事)有关

    The science that studies it will bear on a certain kind of being, immovable substance, immaterial being, not on being as being.

    研究它的科学将研究某种存在,不可移动的物质,非物质的存在,而不是存在本身。

    3.seek to do 力图;设法

    He also denied that he would seek to annex the country.

    他还否认了他企图并吞该国。

    4.keep someone/something at arm's length 避免与某事/某物亲密接触

    They kept me at arm's length, they had to because of my reckless behaviour.

    他们对我敬而远之,因为我的鲁莽行为,他们不得不这样做。